The * Divergence Theorem* relates flux of a
vector field through the boundary of a region to a triple integral
over the region. In particular, let be a vector field, and let R be a region in space.
Then

Here are some examples which should clarify what I mean by the
*boundary* of a region.

If R is the solid sphere , its boundary is the sphere .

Suppose R is the solid cylinder

The boundary consists of the cylinder for , the top , , and the bottom , .

Suppose R is the solid cone .

The boundary consists of the top , and the conical surface for .

Here are some examples which show how the Divergence Theorem is used.

* Example.* Apply the Divergence Theorem to the
radial vector field over a region R in
space.

The Divergence Theorem says

This is similar to the formula for the area of a region in the plane which I derived using Green's theorem.

* Example.* Let R be the box

Find the flux of out of the boundary of R.

By the Divergence Theorem, the flux is

* Example.* Let R be the region bounded above by
and bounded below by the
x-y-plane.

Find the flux of out of the boundary of R.

I'll convert to cylindrical. Note that

The region is

By the Divergence Theorem, the flux is

Here is an interpretation of which is
based on the Divergence Theorem. Construct a *small* solid
sphere R centered at the point P. If at P, then by the Divergence Theorem

That is, there is approximately no net flux out through the boundary
of the sphere. Likewise, if , then
--- there is net flux
*out* through the boundary. And if , then --- there is net flux *in*
through the boundary.

* Example.* Prove that the flux of through the boundary of a region is 0.

Note that .

Hence, if R is a region,

This is analogous to the result that the line integral of a convervative field around a closed curve is 0.

* Example.* Find the flux of out through the surface of the
cube

Let R denote that cube and its boundary, using the outward normal. Now , so by the Divergence Theorem the flux is

The alternative would be to compute the flux through each of the 6 sides and add up the results.

* Example.* Find the flux of outward
through the surface of the region R bounded by the paraboloids

The paraboloids intersect in , so the projection of R into the x-y plane is the unit disk . Convert to cylindrical; the region is

By the Divergence Theorem, the flux is

* Example.* Find the flux of the unit radial
vector field outward
through the surface of the sphere .

Let R be the solid sphere . By the Divergence Theorem,

Convert to spherical; the region is

Now , so

Hence,

* Example.* Use the Divergence Theorem to find
the volume of the ellipsoid

I can parametrize the ellipsoid by

(This is similar to spherical coordinates, if you think about it.)

The normal is

I'll use the radial field:

Then

By symmetry, I can take the flux out of the part in the first octant and multiply by 8:

By the Divergence Theorem, this is 3 times the volume, so the volume is .

* Example.* Find the flux of out through the boundary
of the solid wedge in the first octant bounded by , , , , , and .

The region is

By the Divergence Theorem, the flux is

* Example.* Find the flux of out through the boundary of the
solid .

The projection of the solid into the x-y plane is the disk . I'll convert to cylindrical. The region is

The divergence is . By the Divergence Theorem, the flux out through the boundary is

* Example.* Let S be the surface which consists
of all the faces of the following cube *except for the
bottom*:

Find the flux of outward through S.

Because the bottom is missing, this is not a closed surface. Normally, I'd compute the flux by computing the flux through each of the five remaining faces, then adding up the results. However, it seems like too much work to do five integrals (even though the normal vectors will be very simple).

Instead, I will *force* the Divergence Theorem to apply by
tossing in the missing bottom face.

With the bottom face included, the new surface is a closed surface enclosing the solid cube. The Divergence Theorem applies.

The flux out through is

To find the flux through S, I must compensate by subtracting off the flux out through the bottom, which I will compute directly. The bottom is for and .

The downward normal is

(I need the downward normal because I'm computing the flux out through the bottom.)

Then since ,

The flux out through the bottom is 0, so the flux of out through S is .

* Definition.* A vector field is * solenoidal* if .

Recall that if , then for some f. Something similar works for solenoidal fields (with the usual fine print stating the the components must be continuously differentiable).

* Proposition.* If is a vector field whose components have continuous
partial derivatives and , then
for some vector field .

* Proof.* I'll simply give a formula for
computing , which you're emphatically
*not* supposed to memorize! If , then for . The components of are given by

I'll leave it to you to verify that this field works.

You may be worried that the third component is always 0 --- this seems a bit strange! In fact, it isn't: If and f is any differentiable function,

That is, I can get other fields that work by adding gradient fields to --- and in this way, I can get 's with nonzero z component.

* Example.* Suppose .

(a) Prove that is solenoidal.

(b) Find such that

(a)

(b) I'll use the formulas above to find .

I have , and

If you're confused about the integrands, consider as an example the integral for . The integrand in the formula for is . Now --- it's the first component of . So " " means: Substitute x for x, substitute y for y, and substitute t for z. This gives

That is what I integrated to get .

Thus, the field is

Copyright 2018 by Bruce Ikenaga